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Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program

Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program

Class I Injection Well

The Underground Injection Control (UIC) program is responsible for the regulation of Class I, IV and V injection wells, and for assuring that their operation does not contaminate underground sources of drinking water. The UIC program was established under the authority of Ohio Revised Code sections 6111.043 and 6111.044, and regulates Class I, IV, and V wells by implementing Chapter 3745-34 of the Ohio Administrative Code.

Please consult the U.S. EPA web site for a complete description of the various classes of injection wells as well as a detailed overview of the U.S. EPA's UIC program

Class I Injection Wells

What is a Class I Injection Well?

Class I wells inject hazardous and non-hazardous wastes into deep, isolated rock formations that are thousands of feet below the lowermost underground source of drinking water. Injection zones typically range from 2,700 to more than 7,000 feet in depth. The injection zone is separated from any aquifers by an impermeable “cap” rock called the confining layer, along with additional layers of permeable and impermeable rock and sediment. 

Class I Wells in Ohio

Five facilities in Ohio currently operate a total of 15 Class I injection wells regulated by Ohio EPA. These facilities are: INEOS Nitriles USA, LLC, Cleveland-Cliffs Steel Corporation,  Lime Refinery Corporation, Vickery Environmental Inc., and Buckeye Brine LLC.  Descriptions of the five facilities and their wells are listed below. 

INEOS Nitriles USA, LLC

Facility Location:  1900 Fort Amanda Road, Lima, Ohio, 45802              

INEOS Nitriles USA, LLC (INEOS) currently operates four (4) Class I hazardous waste injection wells (Wells No.1, No.2, No.3 and No.4). Ohio EPA renewed the INEOS permits to operate (PTOs) on August 24, 2016 for a six-year term that expires August 24, 2022.

Deep well injection activities were initiated at the Lima site in 1968.  These wells are used to dispose of wastewater produced at the INEOS chemical plant and the adjacent Fort Amanda Speciaties, LLC facility. The waste stream is primarily comprised of water and includes four (4) percent salts and approximately one (1) percent organics. The industrial and hazardous wastes disposed include waste fluids produced during the manufacture of acrylonitrile, acetonitrile, hydrogen cyanide, sulfates, and ammonia compounds.

The waste stream is injected into the Mount Simon Sandstone and the lower Eau Claire Formation, approximately 2,800 to 3,200 feet below ground level.  The injection zone is separated from the lowermost underground source of drinking water by approximately 2,400 feet of shale, limestone, dolomite, siltstone, and sandstone.

U.S. EPA granted INEOS an exemption from the federal ban on land disposal of hazardous wastes on May 7, 1992. To receive this exemption for continued disposal in the injection wells INEOS was required to demonstrate, with a reasonable degree of certainty, that the injected waste will not migrate vertically out of the designated injection zone and not more than five miles laterally from the well in a 10,000 year period.

Well No. Drilled* Began Operation Max. Injection Pressures Annulus Pressure** Total Depth*** Total Waste Injected****
1 2/28/68 6/28/68 834 psi 50 psi > IP 3,133 feet 2.59 billion gallons
2 8/23/69 10/14/70 843 psi 50 psi > IP 3,210 feet 3.61 billion gallons
3 3/21/72 12/15/72 842 psi 50 psi > IP 3,213 feet 2.62 billion gallons
4 10/26/92 7/8/94 864 psi 50 psi > IP 3,223 feet 1.75 billion gallons

* Well construction completed.

** Annulus pressure must be at least fifty (50) psi greater than injection pressure (IP).

*** Total depth (TD) measured from the Kelly Bushing (KB). This is the original TD of the well.

**** As of August 2021

Cleveland-Cliffs Steel Corporation

Facility Location: 1801 Crawford Street, Middletown, Ohio 45043 

Cleveland-Cliffs Steel Corporation operates two Class I hazardous underground injection wells at their steel plant in Middletown Ohio.  These wells, which began operation in 1969, are used to dispose of a waste fluid commonly referred to as spent pickle liquor (SPL) which consists of hydrochloric acid, iron salts, and water. The waste stream is considered hazardous due to its corrosivity (pH < 0.2) and toxicity (lead and chromium) characteristics. SPL is generated at Cleveland-Cliffs when hydrochloric acid is used to remove iron scale from the surfaces of steel produced onsite.  As of April 30, 2018, cumulative injection totaled approximately 611 million gallons.

The injection zone of the wells’ is separated from the lowermost underground source of drinking water by approximately 1900 feet of shales, limestones, dolomites and sandstones.  The waste stream is injected into the lower Eau Claire Formation, the Mount Simon Sandstone, and the Middle Run Formation at depths in excess of 2900 feet below ground level.

Ohio EPA renewed the Cleveland-Cliffs permits to operate (PTOs) on March 15, 2021for a six-year term that expires March 15, 2027. The permits to operate issued to Cleveland-Cliffs specify maximum injection pressure limitations, require mechanical integrity testing and include many other operational and testing requirements.

In August 1990, U.S. EPA approved information and mathematical modeling provided in the facility’s Land Ban Petition to demonstrate, with a reasonable degree of certainty, that the injected waste will not migrate vertically out of the injection zone and not more than two miles laterally from the wells in a period of 10,000 years.

Well No. Drilled* Began Operation Max. Injection Pressure Annulus Pressure** Total Depth***
1 3/3/67 June 1969 618 psi 50 psi > IP 3,296 feet
2 4/24/68 May 1969 621 psi 50 psi > IP 3,285 feet

* Well construction completed.

** Annulus pressure must be at least fifty (50) psi greater than injection pressure (IP).

*** Total depth (TD) measured from the Kelly Busking (KB). This is the original TD of the well.

Lima Refining Company

Facility Location: 1150 South Metcalf Street, Lima, Ohio, 45804

Lima Refining Company  currently operates three (3) Underground Injection Control (UIC) Class I hazardous waste injection wells (Wells No.1, No.2, and No.3).   Ohio EPA issued the Lima Refining Company’s permits to operate (PTOs) on October 22, 2018 for a five-year term that expires October 22, 2023. 

The three (3) deep wells are used to dispose of nonhazardous wastewater that comes from LRC’s reverse osmosis building on site and their clarifier overflow.  The wastewater is primarily made up of metals, dissolved solids, sulfates, salts, and chlorides.

The waste stream is injected into two primary formations.  The Mount Simon Sandstone and the lower Eau Claire Formation which are approximately 2,800 to 3,200 feet below ground level.  The injection interval is separated from the lowermost underground source of drinking water by approximately 2,400 feet of shale, limestone, dolomite, siltstone, and sandstone.

From 2018 to 2021, the LRC injection wells average injected volume was 40.35 mil gal for Well No. 1, 6.59 mil gal for Well No. 2 and 8.69 mil gal for Well No. 3 per year, for a cumulative total volume (through August of 2021) of 166.86 million gallons.  For each injection well, as of August 31, 2021, the cumulative injection is as follows: 121 million gallons for Well No. 1, 19.76 million gallons for Well No. 2 and 26.06 million gallons for Well No. 3.  Other specific data pertaining to the LRC wells are listed in Table 1 below.


Well No. Drilled* Began Operation Max. Injection Pressures Annulus Pressure** Total Depth*** Total Waste Injected****
1 09/08/17 10/22/18 882 psi 50 psi > IP 3,135 feet 121 million gallons
2 09/28/17 10/22/18 880 psi 50 psi > IP 3,132 feet 19.8 million gallons
3 09/21/17 10/22/18 884 psi 50 psi > IP 3,131 feet 26.1 million gallons

* Well construction completed.

** Annulus pressure must be at least fifty (50) psi greater than injection pressure (IP).

*** Total depth (TD) measured from the Kelly Bushing (KB). This is the original TD of the well.

**** As of August, 2021

Vickery Environmental. Inc.

Facility Location:  3956 State Route 412, Vickery, Ohio, 43464

Vickery Environmental, Inc. (VEI) located in Sandusky County, Ohio currently operates four (4) Class I hazardous underground injection wells (Wells #2, #4, #5 and #6).  Three (3) other injection wells  (Wells #1, #1A,  and #3) have been plugged and abandoned at this facility.  An application for a permit to drill new Wells #7 and #8 was submitted February 3, 2018 and the permits to drill were issued May 22, 2019. Due to complications, Well #7 was never completed and was  completly closed and abandoned during October, 2021.  VEI is currently installing Well #8 and anticipates completing the well in late 2021.  A permit to operate application is anticipated for Well #8 in late 2021.  Well #8 cannot be operated per statute and rule until a permit to operate is issued by Ohio EPA.

Deep well injection activities were initiated at this site in 1976 by Ohio Liquid Disposal, Inc. (OLD).  VEI, the successor to Chemical Waste Management and Waste Management of Ohio (WMO), acquired the facility from OLD in 1978. Waste Management has remained the owner/operator of the injection wells since 1978.  VEI is operated as a commercial waste disposal facility. The wells are used to dispose of liquid industrial wastes and hazardous wastes generated off site by other companies, as well as storm waters and leachate generated on site. 

The wastes disposed of includes spent pickle liquor from, iron and steel production facilities, waste fluids associated with metal plating and finishing, recycling operations process water, incinerator scrubber water, site remediation storm water, leachate recovered from other solid waste facilities and on-site generated storm water and leachate.  Some of these liquid wastes are considered hazardous due to their corrosivity and toxicity caused by the presence of certain waste stream constituents.  The waste is characterized into two main categories, acidic injectate and alkaline injectate.  The acidic injectate has an average pH between 0.5 and 1.0, the alkaline injectate has an average pH between 6.9 and 9.9.  The waste stream is injected into the Mount Simon Sandstone at depths of approximately 2,800 feet below ground level.

The four VEI injection wells are used for waste disposal on an as-needed basis. On average, one or two wells are in operation at any one time.  The monthly injection rate typically averages between five (5) and twenty-five (25) gallons per minute for all four wells. The combined daily maximum injection rate may not exceed 240 gpm, by permit. Through August, 2021, cumulative injection totaled 476.7 million gallons for Well #2, 226.01 million gallons for Well #4, 449.1 million gallons for Well #5 and 443.1 million gallons for Well #6. The total volume injected at the site, including fluids injected in Wells #1, #1A and #3 prior to their closure, is approximately 1.636 billion gallons.  Additional data concerning the VEI wells is listed in Table I.

The Mt. Simon injection zone is separated from the lowermost source of drinking water by approximately 1,600 feet of shale, limestone, dolomite, siltstone and sandstone.  U.S. EPA approved VEI's federal Land Ban Petition (or No Migration Petition) on August 8, 1990, with the most recent renewal being approved March 27, 2015.  The information and mathematical modeling included in the petition, justified with a reasonable degree of certainty, U.S. EPA's determination that the injected waste will not migrate vertically out of the designated injection zone and not more than five miles laterally from the well in a period of 10,000 years. 

 As of September 24, 2021, VEI’s permits to operate are currently under review, for renewal. Permits issued in 2013 are still in effect. The current permits under review and consideration will be renewed by Ohio EPA for a six-year term and will expire in 2027.

Well No. Drilled* Began Injection Max. Injection Pressures Annulus Pressure** Total Depth*** Total Waste Injected****
1   Plugged and abandoned in April 1986   13.7 million gallons

1A   Plugged and abandoned in December 1987   13.7 million gallons

2 1976 3/77 888 psi 50 psi > IP 2,960 feet 476.7 million gallons
3   Plugged and abandoned in July 1987   13.7 million gallons

4 1976 8/77 891 psi 50 psi > IP 2,907 feet 226.0 million gallons
5 1980 10/81 884 psi >50 psi > IP 2,943 feet 449.1 million gallons
6 1980 8/81 886 psi 50 psi > IP 2,930 feet 443.1 million gallons
7 Drilled: July 2019; Partially Plugged and abandoned: August 2019  



8 Drilling completed: August 5, 2021  



* Well construction completed.

** Annulus pressure must be at least fifty (50) psi greater than injection pressure (IP).

*** Total depth (TD) measured from the Kelly Bushing (KB). This is the original TD of the well.

**** As of 8/2021

Buckeye Brine, LLC

Facility Location:  23986 Airport Road, Coshocton, Ohio 43812

Buckeye Brine, LLC  (Buckeye Brine) in Coshocton, Ohio operates two (2) Class I non-hazardous waste injection wells (Adams #1 and #3). Buckeye Brine also operates one (1) Class II well for disposal of wastewater from the oil and gas industry.  The Class I wells are regulated by Ohio EPA and the Class II well is regulated by the Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Oil and Gas.

Class II injection operations at Buckeye Brine began in June of 2012 for Adams #1, March of 2014 for Adams #2, and January 2015 for Adams #3. Adams Wells #1 and #3 were permitted as Class I non-hazardous injection wells on June 25, 2019.  Prior to Adams #1 and #3 being authorization to inject Class I non-hazardous waste, these wells had to be brought up to the current Class I well construction standards.

Buckeye Brine does not accept hazardous waste for injection into the Class I wells. Buckeye Brine also does not accept the following waste: sewage, infection waste, radioactive waste (except NORM and TNORM), PCB wastes, medical waste, CERCLA waste, explosives, military or civilian ordinance, gaseous waste in high pressure cylinders, waste(s) of unknown origin(s).

As of the August 2021 monthly operating report, and since injection activities began for these two wells, the amount of waste disposed is 6,152,370 gallons for Adams #1 and 54,866,604 gallons for Adams #3 for a total of 61,081,974 gallons disposed.

Characteristics of the confining zone (5202’ to 5842’): The depth range represented is for both Adams 1 and Adams 3. The confining zone consists of the Trenton and Black River Limestones. Above these units are the Point Pleasant and Utica shales and the Queenstown and Cincinnatian shales, of Ordovician age.

Characters of the injection zone (5842 to 7270): The depth range represented is for both Adams 1 and Adams 3. The injection zone consists of the following formations: Gull River, Wells Creek, Rose Run, Copper Ridge dolomite, Conasauga, and Mt. Simon. The majority of the fluid goes into the upper portion of the Rome Formation which is composed of a micro to finely crystalline dolomite. The Mt. Simon formation in this part of Ohio is a largely impermeable sandstone with dolomite cement.

Table 1

Well No. Drilled* Began injection operations, Max. Injection and Annulus Operation Pressures Total Depth***
Adams #1 1/19/2012 12/2019; 1869; 1403 7,305 feet
Adams #3 9/16/2014 12/2019; 1874; 435 7,150 feet

* Well construction completed.

** Annulus pressure must be at least fifty (50) psi greater than injection pressure (IP). Class I non-hazardous injection operations began in December 2019. Values for the average annulus pressures were taken from the August 2021 MOR.

*** Total depth (TD) measured from the Kelly Bushing (KB). This is the original TD of the well.

Permit Application Process

All Class I wells have strict siting, construction, operation and maintenance requirements designed to ensure protection of the uppermost sources of drinking water (USDWs). Wells injecting hazardous wastes have siting requirements to show that, with a reasonable degree of certainty, there will be no migration of hazardous constituents from the injection interval. 

Potential Owners and Operators of a new Class I injection well are required by Section 6111.043 of the Ohio Revised Code (ORC) to apply for and obtain from Ohio EPA a permit to drill and a permit to operate.  The permit to drill application specifies the construction specifications for the well and how the information required for the permit to operate application shall be obtained.  The permit to operate application is submitted after the well is constructed and includes the as built specification for the well construction as well as information concerning the injection and confining formations.

The first step in applying for a permit to drill is to conduct a seismic study per OAC 3745-34-40.  The plan for the seismic study must be approved by the Director of Ohio EPA. A seismic report detailing the findings of the seismic study shall be included in the permit to drill application.  

The information required in the permit to drill and permit to operate are specified in:

ORC Section 6111.044 specifies the steps that are to be taken in reviewing a permit to drill or a permit to operate application.  The process for review of an application includes submittal to four division at the Ohio Department of Natural Resources Ohio DNR) for comment.  These divisions are Oil and Gas, Mineral Resources, Geologic Survey and Water Resources.  All comments received from Ohio DNR must be addressed.  If the permit application is found to meet the standards in the statute and rules, a draft permit is issued for public review and comment.  This public review includes a formal public meeting and hearing.  

Class I Injection Wells - Frequently Asked Questions 

Where does the waste come from?

Wastes are generated from a variety of sources ranging from steel mill operations to plastics production to manufacturing of agricultural chemicals. Some wastes are a product of other waste disposal methods (landfill leachate) or anti-pollution devices (wastewater generated by air pollution control equipment).

Why is the waste not recycled?

Recycling of wastes, while on the rise throughout industry, is not always the most cost-effective means for businesses to manage waste waters. Further, some wastes are difficult to reclaim or technology simply does not yet exist to recycle the material. Another option available to industry is to reduce the amount of wastes generated.

For facilities operating a Class I injection well, pollution prevention is a required component of facility operations. Each facility is required per section 6111.045 of the Ohio Revised Code to prepare and adopt a pollution prevention plan to identify technically and economically feasible measures that will be taken to reduce the amount of wastes generated at the facility. The facilities pollution prevention plan must be updated every three years.

Where do the injected wastes go?

Wastes placed in the injection interval displace the salty ground water or brines naturally contained in the pores of the rock formations near the wellbore. With continued injection, the brines are pushed farther from the well by the enlarging plume of wastes, which is roughly cylindrical in shape. As a simplified example, an injection interval 100 feet thick and containing 10 percent pore spaces, would accept nearly 60 million gallons within a 500 foot radius of the well.

How much waste can be injected?

Class I wells are sited only in areas where the injection interval and confining zone are very extensive laterally. Thus, if injection of fluids does not create substantial increases in formation pressure, which cause the injection pressure limitations to be approached, many wells (or injection interval) have nearly unlimited capacity. However, Class I hazardous wells do have volume limitations placed on them based on computer modeling performed during the no-migration demonstration.

Will pressure in the injection layer increase until the well or rock fails?

With injection over many years, a slow buildup of pressure usually occurs in the injection interval (i.e., the rock layer into which the waste is injected). Pressures are highest near the well and decline rapidly at increasing distances from the well. However, because the injection interval is so extensive, injected fluids can continuously flow away from the well, thus preventing a great buildup of pressure near the well. For this reason, when injection ceases, pressures in the injection interval slowly return to near original pressures further demonstrating the rock formation's ability to accept the injected fluids. Additionally, injection pressure limitations prevent injection at pressures, which could cause fractures in the injection or confining zones.

How does Ohio EPA know that the wastes stay where they are injected?

Information reviewed in as part of the permitting process and in demonstrations allows a determination, with reasonable certainty that injected fluids will remain in the permitted intervals. Additionally, periodic testing is required to be performed by operators to ensure that there is no movement of fluids into an underground source of drinking water (USDW). These procedures are witnessed by Ohio EPA and results of all tests are subject to Ohio EPA's review and approval.

There are numerous tests to determine fluid movements; one test uses a temperature sensor run through the length of the well to identify zones that have accepted fluid. Testing with an advanced microphone system allows recognition of flow behind cemented casing. Annual pressure fall-off testing provides information on the condition of the injection interval including the presence or absence of fractures. Finally, ground water monitoring is also conducted at facilities. Monitoring wells are used to observe ground water quality in the lowermost USDW or to monitor pressure and chemistry in deeper zones above the injection interval.

How does Ohio EPA know what is being injected?

Each facility is required to conduct routine sampling and chemical analysis of their injection materials and to report the results to Ohio EPA. The agency also conducts additional sampling on a limited basis.

Class IV Injection Wells

What is a Class IV Injection Well?

Class IV wells are defined in Ohio Administrative Code (OAC) Rule 3745-34-04(D). Class IV wells are shallow wells used to inject hazardous or radioactive wastes into or above a geologic formation that contains an underground source of drinking water. In 1984, U.S. EPA banned the use of Class IV injection wells for disposal of hazardous or radioactive waste. Now, these wells may only be operated as part of a U.S. EPA or state-authorized ground water clean-up action. There are about 32 waste clean-up sites with Class IV wells in the United States.

What is the difference between Class IV and Class V injection wells?

In general, both shallow Class IV and Class V wells inject fluids into or above the uppermost underground source of drinking water and may be of similar construction. The difference between Class IV and Class V wells is the quality of the fluid being injected. Class V wells may only inject non-hazardous fluids that will not cause the underground sources of drinking water to exceed any drinking water standards. However, if a Class V well is misused and receives hazardous waste, the well would be considered a Class IV well and therefore must be closed and plugged. Class IV wells are prohibited unless the injection wells have been approved by the Director of Ohio EPA or US EPA to inject contaminated ground water that has been treated and is being injected into the same formation from which it was drawn as part of a ground water clean up.

When an unauthorized Class IV well is discovered, the Ohio EPA ensures that the well is plugged appropriately and that any necessary corrective actions are taken at the site. All Class IV well operators must submit information about the well construction and nature of the injectate to Ohio EPA. 

Class V Injection Wells

What is a Class V Injection Well?

class 5 well schematicClass V wells are used to inject non-hazardous fluids underground. Fluids are injected either into or above an underground source of drinking water. There are 18 different types of Class V wells. Examples of Class V wells include: surface water runoff drainage wells; septic systems; dry wells; motor vehicle waste disposal wells; and industrial, commercial and utility disposal wells.

Most Class V wells are "low-tech" and depend on gravity to drain fluids directly below the land surface. Drywells, cesspools and septic system leach fields are examples of simple Class V wells. Because their construction often provides little or no pretreatment and these fluids are injected directly into or above an underground source of drinking water, proper management is important. More sophisticated Class V wells may rely on gravity or use pressure systems for fluid injection. Some sophisticated systems include advanced wastewater disposal systems used by industry, experimental wells used to test new or unproven technologies and even systems used to inject and store drinking water for later use. 

Class V Injection Wells - Frequently Asked Questions

Do Class V injection wells need to be registered with Ohio EPA?

The owner or operator of a Class V well is required by Ohio Administrative Code (OAC) Rule 3745-34-11(M) to notify Ohio EPA of the well's existence. The notification is required to be submitted within 30 days of installing a new well and shall include a completed "Underground Injection Control Class V Well Inventory Form". 

Which Class V injection wells are required to have permits?

All Class V injection wells injecting industrial waste or other waste (as defined by Ohio Administrative Code (OAC) Rule 3745-34-01) must possess a permit to drill and a permit to operate prior to injection beginning (OAC Rule 3745-34-11(A)). All Class V injection wells injecting only sanitary waste (as defined by OAC Rule 3745-34-01) that have been permitted or authorized by Ohio EPA’s Division of Surface Water or the relevant local health department are authorized by rule provided a complete inventory form has been submitted to the UIC program (OAC Rule 3745-34-11(D)). All other types of Class V injections wells (such as storm water drainage wells) are authorized by rule to inject wastes into the subsurface provided they have been registered with Ohio EPA (OAC Rule 3745-34-11(I)). The Director may require any Class V well authorized by rule to apply for and obtain a UIC permit if the injection well is not in compliance with any requirements of OAC Chapter 3745-34 or if the protection of an underground source of drinking water necessitates that injection be regulated by requirements not contained in these rules (OAC Rule 3745-34-11(L)).

What are the permit requirements for Class V wells?

Ohio Administrative Code (OAC) Rule 3745-34-12 and OAC Rule 3745-34-16 lists the requirements for submitting a permit to drill and a permit to operate to the Ohio EPA for a Class V injection well. OAC Rule 3745-34-26 and OAC Rule 3745-34-27 also contain requirements concerning a permit application. 

Can a permit exemption be obtained for Class V injection wells used as part of a ground water remediation effort?

Yes, under certain conditions, soil and ground water remediation efforts may warrant the subsurface injection of fluids that exceed drinking water standards. If the remediation well is needed as part of a clean up effort approved by U.S. EPA or Ohio EPA as part of a ground water or soil clean up,  then the well is approved by rule as long as inventory information is submitted. Operators of Class V Aquifer Remediation wells where fluids to be injected do not exceed drinking water standards must comply with OAC Rule 3745-34-11(H) to avoid having to submit a permit application.

What are the permit fees required to construct and operate a Class V well?

Each application for a Class V permit to drill and install must be accompanied by a non-refundable fee of $3,000 dollars for each application.

Each application for a Class V permit to operate must be accompanied by a non-refundable fee of $3,000 dollars for each application. This permit must be renewed at least every five years.

Are any types of Class V injection wells not allowed?

Yes. 

All motor vehicle waste disposal wells and all large capacity cesspools are illegal under both federal and Ohio regulations (Ohio Administrative Code (OAC) Rules 3745-34-11(B) and (C)). Large capacity cesspools are considered injection wells used to dispose of untreated sanitary waste (OAC Rule 3745-34-01). Motor vehicle waste disposal wells are wells that are used to dispose of fluids from the repair of motor vehicles including cars, trucks, buses, vans, motorcycles, airplanes, farm equipment, constructions equipment and other types of motorized vehicles (OAC Rule 3745-34-01).

Owners or operators of Class V wells associated with golf course maintenance facilities should also reference the following fact sheet:

Are there closure requirements for Class V injection wells?

Closure requirements are specified in Ohio Administrative Code (OAC) Rule 3745-34-11(O). All types of Class V injection wells must be closed in a manner that is protective of human health and all waste materials removed from the wells must be disposed of in accordance with all applicable laws and regulations (OAC Rule 3745-34-7(A)). Owners or operators for all types of Class V injection wells must notify the Ohio EPA of the intent to close a Class V injection well at least 30 days prior to closure of the well. The owners or operators of Class V injection wells used to dispose of industrial or other wastes must submit a closure plan detailing, at a minimum, the inventory information concerning the well, procedures for removing any sludges or wastes from the well and procedures for plugging the well.

Approved Class I and V Permits

All permits can be accessed through Ohio EPA's eDocument search engine. Here are brief instructions for accessing them through the main search page.

If you are unable to find the information you're looking for, or have any questions about the permits or the UIC program, please contact one of the staff members listed to the right below the Quick Links.

Number and Types of Injection Wells

Injection Well Inventory in Database as of 12/31/2020          
Well Type Active Perm Abnd. Temp Abdn. Proposed Total
Class I Hazardous 10 3 0 2 15
Class I non-Hazardous 5 4 0 1 10
Class IV 1 6 0 0 7
Non-Hazardous Ind. Class V 35 75 8 0 118
Motor Vehicle Waste Disposal 21 589 3 0 613
Large Capacity Cesspools 5 136 1 0 142
Large Capacity Septic Systems 5240 230 2 0 5472
Mine Backfill 0 38328 0 0 38328
Cooling Water Return 89 105 0 0 194
Remediation 9748 6757 3889 0 20394
DW Treatment Residual 414 1 0 0 415
Kennels 32 0 0 0 32
Heat Pump Return 92 0 0 0 92
StormwaterDrainage Wells 3838 63 15 0 3916
Total 19530 46297 3918 3 69748

Class I and V Well Inventory (Excel spreadsheet as of September 2021).