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Also known as "Wellhead Protection" and "Drinking Water Source Protection," Ohio's Source Water Assessment and Protection program helps more than 4,500 public water systems protect their drinking water sources (streams, lakes and aquifers) from contamination. The SWAP program does not address private residential water systems.

U.S. EPA defines a Sole Source Aquifer as an aquifer that supplies at least 50 percent of the drinking water consumed in the area overlying the aquifer. These areas may have no alternative drinking water source(s) that could physically, legally and economically supply all those who depend on the aquifer for drinking water. The SSA designation protects an area's ground water resource by requiring U.S. EPA to review certain proposed projects within the designated area. All proposed projects receiving federal funds are subject to review to ensure that they do not endanger the water source.